Saturday, June 2, 2012

Sarah Burt & Philip Crouse - my 3rd Great Grandparents

     Name: Sarah Burt      Sex: F
Individual Information
          Birth: Jan 1771 - Ridgefield, Fairfield, CT
          Death: Sep 23, 1832 - Keswick, York Co., NB, Can
         Burial: in Keswick, York Co., NB, Can
         Father: Benjamin Burt (1741-1785)
         Mother: Rebecca [Burt] (          -          )
Spouses and Children
1.   Philip Crouse (1760 - Feb 21, 1857)
       Marriage: Apr 8, 1791 - Queensbury, NB, Can
          1. Sarah Crouse (1792-1876)
          2. Rebecca Crouse (1794-1886)
          3. John Crouse (1795-Between 1871/1881)
          4. Darius Crouse (1796-1880)
          5. Philip Crouse Jr. (1797-Between 1870/1882)
          6. Elizabeth Crouse (1798-1882)
          7. Peter Crouse (1800-Abt 1836)
          8. Huldah Crouse (1801-1847)
          9. Gould Crouse (1802-1894)
          10. Thomas Crouse (1804-1879)
          11. Amy Crouse (1805-1905)
          12. Mary (Polly) Crouse (Abt 1807-Bef 1813)
          13. Urial Crouse (1808-1904)
          14. Jonas Crouse (Abt 1810-Bef 1823)
          15. Richard Crouse (1811-1857/1861)
          16. Mary Crouse (1813-1862)
          17. James Crouse (1815-1898)
          18. Benjamin Crouse (1817-Between 1890/1902)
   Crouse Family History. The Descendants of Philip and Sarah Crouse. 2nd ed.,
   by Roguer Crouse. 2000 and 2007.
   The New Brunswick Royal Gazette, Oct. 7, 1823. P. 2. Death notice.

     Name: Philip Crouse      Sex: M
Individual Information
          Birth: 1760 - Zeeland, The Netherlands
          Death: Feb 21, 1857 - Stoneridge, York Co., NB, Can
         Burial: in Stoneridge, York Co., NB, Can
Spouses and Children
1.   Sarah Burt (Jan 1771 - Sep 23, 1832)
       Marriage: Apr 8, 1791 - Queensbury, NB, Can
          1. Sarah Crouse (1792-1876)
          2. Rebecca Crouse (1794-1886)
          3. John Crouse (1795-Between 1871/1881)
          4. Darius Crouse (1796-1880)
          5. Philip Crouse Jr. (1797-Between 1870/1882)
          6. Elizabeth Crouse (1798-1882)
          7. Peter Crouse (1800-Abt 1836)
          8. Huldah Crouse (1801-1847)
          9. Gould Crouse (1802-1894)
          10. Thomas Crouse (1804-1879)
          11. Amy Crouse (1805-1905)
          12. Mary (Polly) Crouse (Abt 1807-Bef 1813)
          13. Urial Crouse (1808-1904)
          14. Jonas Crouse (Abt 1810-Bef 1823)
          15. Richard Crouse (1811-1857/1861)
          16. Mary Crouse (1813-1862)
          17. James Crouse (1815-1898)
          18. Benjamin Crouse (1817-Between 1890/1902)

2.   Mary [Crouse] (Abt 1790 - Jun 30, 1851)
       Marriage: in Keswick, York Co., NB, Can
   Loyalist   Philip was born, about 1760, in the Province of Zeeland in what is now known
   as the Netherlands. Zeeland is a coastal province which can be found on
   modern maps nestled in the southwest corner of the country, sharing its
   southern border with Belgium. When Philip was young, presumably with his
   parents, he emigrated from Rotterdam to Philadelphia around 1763 to 1768.
   The northern colonies were becoming increasingly overcrowded and much of the
   better land had been settled. To the south was a milder climate and cheaper
   land, especially inland areas. There were only two ways to travel to the
   southern colonies in those days, either sailing by ship or by traveling
   overland on the Great Wagon Road from Philadelphia, through the Shenandoah
   Valley, over the Blue Ridge and into North Carolina. Philip traveled over
   this land route, which was more like what we today would call a trail than a
   road. Philip ended up in Salisbury, North Carolina, as a young teenager. One
   of the many Great Wagon Road branch trails, once used by buffalo and Indians
   exclusively, directly passed by the area that is now Gaston County, North
   Carolina. In Philip's day it was Tryon County in the British Colony of North
   Carolina. Philip found himself living here on a family farm on Beaverdam
   Creek just a few miles from present-day Crouse, North Carolina.
   Philip as a teenager lived on this farm, probably with his parents. The farm
   consisted of a house with several farm buildings. Family members were
   provided their final resting place in the nearby cemetery.
   The settlement of Crouse, North Carolina, was established later around 1840,
   and was named after Dr. William L. Crouse, a physician. Dr. Crouse is not a
   direct descendant of Philip. It is generally believed that Philip had at
   least two brothers, John and Peter. John Crouse, the direct ancestor of Dr.
   William L. Crouse, was a farmer in the Beaverdam Creek and Indian Creek
   area. He married Sarah Mauney (pronounced moon-knee) and their descendants
   for successive generations thrived in the Gaston-Lincoln County area. The
   other brother, Peter Crouse, also lived in the same area and married Anna
   Carpenter. Some evidence points to his occupation as being a gunsmith. By
   this time Philip was firmly established as a British subject and he had a
   second language English, after Dutch, of course.
   In the 1770's this area of North Carolina was populated with people who had
   basically three political views. There were Loyalists, also known as Tories,
   interested in maintaining British citizenship. There were Revolutionaries,
   also known as Whigs, interested in forming an independent relationship with
   Britain, possibly as a loose confederation of colonies. The third political
   view was held by a large neutral group that really wanted nothing more than
   to be left alone. They were much more interested in establishing homesteads
   and raising families than the politics of a revolutionary war. Careful
   checking of public records of the period show many pioneers' sympathies
   shifted back and forth between Tory and Whig allegiance as new situations
   confronted them. Often families were split with brother and brother, or
   father and son, on opposite political sides. Apparently, this is the case
   with Philip and his family, or maybe to be more fair, Philip was the
   politically active one, while the others in the family were more neutral.
   When the first shots were fired at Lexington and Concord, it was not at all
   certain the Revolution would be a success, in fact, far from it. Many
   Colonists eventually chose sides for varied reasons. Some, like coastal
   merchants, had valuable economic ties to Britain to protect. Others wanted
   to stay out of trouble and picked whichever side was perceived to be winning
   or more popular in the particular area they lived. Many prominent Colonists
   originally didn't want to be separate from Britain and wished to be treated
   the same as British citizens living in the British Isles. They actually
   protested to be treated more like British citizens. Some visionaries saw the
   advantages of independence from Britain, especially when the Crown
   established policies that slipped into disrespect and disregard for the
   Colonists' well-being.
   Philip chose to be politically active as a British Loyalist. What motivated
   our young teenage Philip to be a Loyalist could have been a number of
   things. Being devout Lutheran, his word was his bond. If at any time he took
   an oath of loyalty to the British Crown, as often was required, it would be
   no small event to break his word. Something certainly not to be taken
   lightly. There was another interesting influence that swept into the life of
   young and restless Philip: the tireless Loyalist promoters Major Nicholas
   Welch and Philip's neighbor Colonel John Moore.
   John Moore had joined the British army and was made lieutenant-colonel of
   Hamilton's North Carolina Loyalist Regiment. He took an active part in
   arousing and increasing the Loyalist element in Lincoln County (Lincoln
   County was formed when Tryon County was split in 1779). Moses Moore, John's
   father, made his home on Indian Creek, very near where Philip lived. On June
   10, 1780, Colonel Moore called a meeting of the Loyalists at his father's
   residence, where about 40 men gathered. Subsequent to this meeting, he
   directed those in attendance to meet on June 13th at Derick Ramsour's Mill
   (located about eight miles from his father's farm in what is now Lincolnton,
   North Carolina) and to make ready for anticipated Revolutionary
   confrontations. Emotions, whipped up, ran high in the people of the local
   area where many had long been loyal to King George. By the time June 13th
   rolled around over 200 Loyalist men had appeared at Ramsour's Mill, where
   they commenced grinding grain in anticipation of joining forces with the
   British in South Carolina. On June 14th they were joined by many more men
   and by June 19th the number of Loyalists had grown to approximately 1,200.
   Philip Crouse was, without much doubt, among them.
   More than 300 of these 1,200 men did not have weapons. They encamped on a
   hillside ridge about three hundred yards east of Ramsour's Mill. The ridge
   had a gentle slope and was open, except for a few trees, for two hundred
   yards. At the base of the hill, to the south and east, was a glade, the side
   of which was covered by bushes.
   The Revolutionary forces amounted to only about 400 men and were commanded
   by Colonel Francis Locke. On June 19th, they gathered twelve miles from the
   Loyalist stronghold. They calculated their best chance of success,
   considering their lesser numbers, was to mount a surprise attack before
   their own forces could be detected. So, it was decided they would march all
   night and surprise the Loyalists at sunrise. It was determined that a
   surprise attack, in a situation where the Loyalists would be unaware of the
   Revolutionaries' inferior numbers, should be sufficient to rout them. With
   about 100 men under Colonel Locke mounted, it was agreed that this force
   would open the attack. The foot soldiers would follow. Late that evening
   they marched for Ramsour's Mill.
   About a mile from the mill Colonel Locke was met by Adam Reep and his small
   company of about 20 men. Reep was a noted Revolutionary, although his
   neighbors were generally loyal to King George. He gave Colonel Locke full
   account of the Loyalist position. Armed with this knowledge and his men
   spoiling for a fight, the stage for battle was set as dawn broke on Tuesday,
   June 20, 1780.
   The first contact between forces occurred when the Revolutionary Cavalry
   came upon and surprised a Loyalist picket placed six hundred yards in an
   advanced position. The picket fired and retreated to the main camp as the
   battle escalated. A dense fog covered the area as the Revolutionary horsemen
   came in from the east. They rode up within 30 steps and opened fire,
   throwing the Loyalists into confusion. Those Loyalists without weapons
   retreated to the rear and out of the battle scene. The remaining Loyalists,
   gripping their senses and seeing only about 100 of the enemy attacking,
   quickly regrouped and rallied, raining such hot fire that the Revolutionary
   horsemen retreated back through their infantry. Some of the Revolutionary
   infantry also retreated and never returned to the battle. The remaining
   Revolutionary infantry advanced, firing their muskets, then stepping back a
   few steps to reload. As they prepared for their next round of fire, others
   stepped forward and spent their ammunition.
   The six hundred yard charge toward the hilltop entrenched Loyalists had
   greatly disorganized the Revolutionary line. Seeing an opening for victory
   and anxious to take advantage of the Revolutionary forces' disarray, the
   Loyalist infantry poured down from the hilltop. The Revolutionary forces
   quickly filled their own gaps, spontaneously reorganized, and the fighting
   remained fierce for about an hour. The fire was so deadly the Loyalists
   gradually retreated back to the hilltop, and a little beyond, in an attempt
   to protect themselves from the onslaught. From the advantage of the elevated
   position the Loyalists were able to rain bullets on the pursuing
   Revolutionaries driving them nearly back to the glade, and then once again
   the Loyalists advanced partway down the hill.
   Shielded by a fence the Revolutionaries were able to commence a galling fire
   on the right flank of the Loyalists, again forcing a retreat back up the
   hill and then further along the ridge toward the summit to their former
   position. But now a part of the summit was occupied by the Revolutionaries,
   and in two instances hand-to-hand battle ensued. Neither side had bayonets,
   so they struck each other with the butts of their guns. Men often recognized
   individuals they knew in the opposite camp and, as they battled even
   instigated heated banter, at times.
   There were no uniforms on either side of the conflict, so to tell friend
   from foe the Loyalists wore green pine twigs in their hats. The
   Revolutionaries didn't make the most intelligent choice for their
   identification. They wore a white piece of paper or cloth in their hats so
   many of their dead where found shot in the head, as the white badge of
   allegiance provided an excellent long-range bull's-eye target. In some
   cases, when things looked particularly dicey a combatant cagily took his
   identification from his hat and slipped away undetected.
   The Revolutionaries had the benefit of preplanning their attack and so when
   the Loyalists were once again exposed on the hillside, they took advantage
   of their preparedness. Their plan, as executed, was to simultaneously flank
   the left and right of the Loyalists. With vicious fire from the flanks and
   pressed from the front, the Loyalist resolve broke and they fled down the
   backside of the hill toward the mill pond. Many were picked off as they
   scattered. Preparing for another attack the Revolutionaries, now gathered on
   the hilltop, could only muster a meager 110 men for further battle - but
   they were not needed. Unaware of the Revolutionaries' inferior strength and,
   effective command from Colonel Moore not forthcoming, the Loyalists
   Seventy or more from both sides died in battle, their bodies strewn over the
   hill. Of the seventy, about forty were Revolutionaries. Around one hundred
   of the men on each side were wounded, some of whom later died.
   Colonel Moore and about thirty men made their way to the headquarters of his
   commander Lord Cornwallis. Cornwallis was not impressed by Colonel Moore's
   actions. Moore was put under arrest and threatened with court-martial for
   his disobedience of orders leading up to the Battle of Ramsour's Mill. He
   was finally released.
   By 1782 the area of North Carolina which Philip called home was controlled
   by the Revolutionaries. He openly opposed the rebels that promoted the
   independence of the American Colonies from Britain, and was recognized as a
   Loyalist sympathizer. Philip and many others were asked to leave North
   Carolina because of their views. It is important to remember that Loyalists
   at this time were in political disfavor, but generally they were not bad
   people, in fact, far from it. Loyalist families played a large part in the
   early building of a strong foundation for the United States. The only real
   difference they had was an alternate vision of the future. When they left
   they took with them desperately needed skills and strong backs. In this
   aspect they were greatly missed.
   Philip saved his money and in 1789 traveled downriver to Charleston, South
   Carolina, where he booked passage on a ship, and headed for British
   controlled Saint John, New Brunswick. Undoubtedly, he stopped in New York
   City before sailing to Saint John in the Bay of Fundy.
   Upon arrival he immediately traveled up the St. John River looking for land
   that he could homestead, attracted by the possibility of obtaining a land
   grant from the British Crown. After stopping in Fredericton, the New
   Brunswick capital, he continued upriver on the St. John until he reached the
   Keswick River, where in early November 1789 he, along with Jacob Ham,
   Christian Knai, Jacob Knai, and Philip Henry, applied in a formal petition
   to the British Crown for approximately "200 acres each on unlocated lands on
   the Madam Keswick above the N.Y. Volunteers." They stated, "That from
   Loyalty to the best of Sovereigns and attachment to the British Constitution
   - They left their Native Country North Carolina to seek an asylum in this
   divining Province."
   He had found his way to Keswick Valley, after only about a four week journey
   from his North Carolina home. The original 1789 Land Grant Petition by
   Philip and his four fellow North Carolinians was not approved. While Jacob
   Ham, Christian Knai and Philip Henry, three of the other grant
   co-applicants, moved on, Philip remained at the site of the original
   petition, going about the hard work of clearing the land, building a cabin,
   and establishing a farm. The fourth grant co-applicant, Jacob Knai, acquired
   a small lot near present-day Burtts Corner, New Brunswick, but by April 1826
   he had sold his lot to William Boone and had moved on as well.
   Philip met Sarah Burt, the fourth child of a Connecticut Loyalist family,
   and they married in 1791. Their first child was born in 1792, while their
   eighteenth and last child was born in 1817, a span of 25 years. All but two
   children lived to adulthood. All their children were born on the original
   farmstead on the Keswick River, below Stone Ridge.
   Philip brought to New Brunswick an old Dutch Bible. Many of his
   grandchildren remembered him reading to them from his Bible. The names and
   birth dates of sixteen of Philip's eighteen children were written in it.
   Philip continued to develop his farmstead, and with the help of his
   children, planted crops to feed the livestock and for family use. They had
   cows, horses, sheep, hogs and chickens. Salmon was fished from the Keswick
   River and cooked fresh or dried. Wild game was hunted, as well.
   On the 26 of June, 1811, it was finally official. It had been almost 22
   years since Philip first applied for his original 200 acre Crown Land Grant
   and now legal title to his expanded 400 - acre homestead was finally granted
   to him by the British Government. He had proven he was a deserving Loyalist,
   who had homesteaded and improved the property. As with many British Crown
   Land Grants, the homesteaders had to settle and improve the property before
   legal title was conveyed by the Crown.
   Sadly, in 1832 Philip's wife Sarah died after a short illness. She was laid
   to rest in the family cemetery next to the farmhouse, on the bank of the
   Keswick River. Here she rested next to her two children who predeceased her,
   Polly and Jonas.
   Eventually, Philip would marry again, to a woman named Mary, likely a widow
   herself. Philip and Mary did not have children together.
   In 1831 Philip and Sarah's son, Gould, purchased 200 acres of the original
   British Crown Land Grant from Philip. Philip was about 70 years old at the
   time. Sometime around 1840 Gould named the community that had grown up
   around Philip's land grant, New Zealand, in honor of his father's birth
   place in the Netherlands.
   When Philip passed away at the home of his son Benjamin at the venerable age
   of 96 years old, his obituary read, "He had 18 children, by his wife, and
   lived to see 196 of his grand children, and 118 of his great grand children.
   He was much esteemed by all who knew him." Philip was buried alongside his
   wife Sarah in the Crouse family cemetery
   He settled near Keswick Stream, Parish of Douglas, York County, New
   Crouse Family History. The Descendants of Philip and Sarah Crouse. 2nd ed.,
   by Roguer Crouse. 2000 and 2007.
   The Fredericton Sentinel: "At Stone Ridge, Keswick, on the 21st ult., Mr.
   Philip Crouse, aged 96 years. He had 18 children, by his wife, and lived to
   see 196 of his grand children, and 118 of his great grand children. He was
   much esteemed by all who knew him."
   1851 Canadian Census: New Brunswick. York Co. Douglas Parish. p. 21. LAC mf
   Benjamin Crouse    33    New Brunswick       Farmer
   Ann                         30    New Brunswick
   Huldah                      4    New Brunswick
   Philip Crouse          90    New Brunswick       Father (Infirm)
   Mary                       60    New Brunswick

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